Timeline: BSE and vCJD

日期:2019-03-02 06:06:10 作者:轩辕稻搀 阅读:

By Updated by John Pickrell, 13 December 04 BSE and vCJD – Learn more in our comprehensive special report. Timeline: The rise and rise of BSE New Scientist traces the BSE crisis from the mid-1980s to the now 22 Dec 1984: The first confirmed victim of BSE. Cow number 133 on the Stent farm in Sussex develops head tremors and a loss of coordination 11 Feb 1985: Cow 133 dies. Other cows show similar symptoms the next year 19 Sep 1985: Government pathologist finds Cow 133 died from spongiform encephalopathy (SE) Nov/Dec 1986: Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) recognised as new cattle disease. Information placed “under embargo” 5 June 1987: Chief Veterinary Officer tells Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) of the new disease 5-6 Oct 1987: BSE found to be a prion disease. Described weeks later in The Veterinary Record May 1988: Government forms Southwood working party to look into BSE 21 June 1988: BSE becomes notifiable disease 18 July 1988: Ruminant protein banned from sheep and cattle feed 9 Feb 1989: Southwood report says BSE is unlikely to pose threat to humans. Recommends setting up expert committee to advise on SE research 13 Nov 1989: Use of specified bovine offal (SBO) banned in human food 3 Feb 1990: BSE shown to be transferable from cow to cow by injection, and to mice orally 10 May 1990: Siamese cat called Max reported to have BSE-like disease. Species barrier appears to have been broken in the real world, not just the laboratory 16 May 1990: Chief Medical Officer (CMO) says beef is safe to eat 4 May 1992: Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee (SEAC) says existing safeguards should protect human health 1992/1993: BSE peaks as 0.3 per cent of national herd affected. BSE starts to decline in 1993 11 March 1993: CMO again says beef is safe June 1994: BSE shown to be orally transferable from cow to cow May 1995: First death from variant CJD Nov 1995: MAFF informs SEAC that some abattoirs are ignoring SBO ban. Infected tissue could still be entering human food chain Dec 1995: MAFF bans “mechanically recovered meat” (MRM, dislodged from spinal columns of cattle) from human food 20 March 1996: SEAC announces probable link between BSE in cows and vCJD in humans, the major turning point in the whole affair 25 March 1996: EU bans British beef exports 3 April 1996: Cattle 30+ months banned from food chain 1 Aug 1996: MAFF says BSE may be passed from a cow to its calf 16 Aug 1996: Selective cull of cattle most at risk from BSE announced 16 Sep 1997: Mice studies reveal evidence for link between BSE and vCJD 22 Dec 1997: BSE Inquiry set up 26 Oct 2000: BSE Inquiry report published 28 Oct 2000: European Union approves a massive testing programme for BSE – up to six million cattle a year, starting in 2001 Nov 2000: First Spanish and German cases of BSE discovered 9 Feb 2000: Two Thai citizens reported to have vCJD, the first cases outside Europe June 2001: The three biggest international agencies for health and agriculture – the World Health Organisation, Food and Agriculture Organisations and World Animal Health Organisation – want all countries to assess their risk of BSE July 2001: Mouse cells “cured” of scrapie – antibodies raise hope of cure 10 Sep 2001: Mad cow disease reaches Japan – the first native-born case reported outside Europe Sep 2001: Leading UK epidemiologist says France on course to report more cases of BSE in 2002 than the UK Sep/Oct 2001: UK-based trial of a drug to treat vCJD – quinacrine – set to start Oct 2001: UK BSE experiments end in farce – Scientists conducting a five year study to find whether BSE has infiltrated UK sheep were testing cattle samples all along Nov 2001: A bug in the soil might trigger both BSE and multiple sclerosis, say a team of immunologists in London Aug 2002: First confirmed case of vCJD in North America Nov 2002: Mouse study suggests the eating of infected meat might cause classical CJD in people, as well as variant CJD Dec 2002: A UK court rules that two dying teenagers can be the first to be injected with an experimental treatment Jan 2003: Untested drug to be injected into the brain of a British teenager in the hope of slowing the fatal disease Feb 2003: Predicted deaths from vCJD slashed – a new analysis reduces the extent of the worst-case epidemic to 7000, following two years of falling figures May 2003: The condition of a UK teenager appears to have stabilised and possibly even improved following injections of a controversial vCJD drug 21 May 2003: The first cow to be found with the deadly disease in Canada for a decade has been discovered 23 May 2003: Mad cow quarantine in Canada extended to nine herds as investigators scramble to find the cause of a case of BSE December 2003: The death of a British man from vCJD is linked to a blood transfusion seven years earlier 25 December 2003: First confirmed case of BSE in the US, in a cow slaughtered for food in Washington state earlier in the month. The US Department of Agriculture has been testing some 30,000 US cattle a year for BSE since 2001 February 2004: New form of BSE discovered in cattle which resembles sporadic CJD in people, a form of the brain disease which had been thought to develop spontaneously March 2004: The US follows the advice of foreign scientists and announces plans to test up to half a million cattle for BSE April 2004: A mysterious new form of mad cow disease may have adapted to sheep, according to the UK government May 2004: New tonsil tests reveals that nearly 4000 Britons aged between 10 and 30 may be harbouring prions that cause vCJD. June 2004: Researchers make an important step towards producing genetically-modified, BSE-resistant cattle June 2004: A second cow in the US tests positive for BSE July 2004: Prion proteins are synthesised in the laboratory for the first time. The breakthrough could offer new ways to combat BSE and related human brain disorders August 2004: UK government launches the first large trial of potential vCJD treatments – focusing on quinacrine November 2004: Study confirms that many people may have a genetic make-up that protects them against developing vCJD December 2004: Total number of people with vCJD in Britain rises to 150,